Cover of The Zemstvo Congress

The Zemstvo Congress

Auhtor: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Language: english
Published: 1911

Genres:

political,  revolutionary,  social history
Downloads: 160
eBook size: 272Kb

Review by Dr. Bojan Tunguz, August 2006


Rating: (****)
Copyright: Public Domain in the U.S.
Please check the copyright status in your country.

Summary of the Book 'The Zemstvo Congress':

Over the next twelve years bolshevism which had begun as a faction within the Russian Social-Democratic Workers party gradually emerged as an independent party that had cut its ties with all other Russian Marxists. The process involved long and bitter arguments against Mensheviks as well as against all those who worked to reunite the factions. It involved fights over funds struggles for control of newspapers the development of rival organizations and meetings of rival groups. Disputes concerned many questions about the goals and strategies of Marxism and the role of national (rather than international) struggles within Marxism. Since about 1905 the international socialist movement had begun also to discuss the possibility of a major war breaking out among European nations. In 1907 and 1912 members met and condemned such wars in advance pledging not to support them. Lenin had wanted to go further than that. He had urged active opposition to the war effort and a transformation of any war into a proletarian revolution. When World War I (19141918 a conflict involving most European nations as well as Russia the United States and Japan) broke out most socialist leaders in the countries involved supported the war effort. For Lenin this was proof that he and the other leaders shared no common aims or views. The break between the two schools of Marxism could not be fixed. During World War I (191418) Lenin lived in Switzerland. He attended several conferences of radical socialists opposed to the war. He read a large amount of literature on the Marxist idea of state government and wrote a first draft for a book on the subject The State and Revolution. He also studied literature dealing with world politics of the time and wrote an important book Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism in 1916. By the beginning of 1917 he had fits of depression and wrote to a close friend that he thought he would never see another revolution. This was about a month before the overthrow of the Russian czar in the winter of 1917 which marked the beginning of the 1917 Russian Revolution.

Excerpts from the Book 'The Zemstvo Congress':


... September 12 (25), there opened in Moscow a Zemstvo and Municipal Congress, which discussed and finally determined the attitude to the Duma. Like previous ...
... in hand with the political development of the bourgeoisie as a class. ? ? But besides this general significance, the Zemstvo Congress is also ...
... of the difference between then and now, let us remind him of the statement that appeared in the latest issue of Osvobozhdeniye. Mr. Independent ...
... Party resolutely and unconditionally expresses itself against renouncing the former methods of struggle. However, the gist of the false ...
... struggle, they should be boycotting the Duma. After renouncing the boycott, it was logically inevitable for them to renounce some of the former methods ...
... closure of the Congress, police forbade all seditious outcries (according to a wire from the special correspondent of the conservative paper Le Temps, ...
... The majority considered that non-participation in the elections would be a sign of timidity - a view fully shared, as we know, by Parvus and the new ...
... writer, who is independent of the police, calls not for a moment renouncing the former methods of struggle. . . . ? ? Moderating their formerly ...
... William Stead, that liberal who but yesterday was an admirer of the autocracy, so aptly put it (see his letter to The Times of September 26), external ...
... to join this party. Mr. Stakhovich's assertion is confirmed not only by the statements of many legally published newspapers, but even more so by the ...
... continue even now to stand, together with Parvus, for an agreement with the Osvobozhdeniye adherents and support for them, after they have obviously ...
... of an active boycott. Here too, as in the well-known case of the Zemstvo campaign plan,[107] Iskra is at variance with its adherents in Russia. Only ...
... the organisation of the revolutionary forces of the proletariat and the peasantry, we must not confuse this organisation of war, this organisation of ...
... is to the Mensheviks' plan of support for the Zemstvo campaign which was conducted by bourgeois liberals between the autumn of 1904 and January 1905. ...
... and its suburbs. The commission was made up of officials, the heads of government-owned factories, and factory owners. The intention was also to include ...
... Austria and in RussiaLenin was one of the leading political figures and revolutionary thinkers of the 20th century, who masterminded the Bolshevik take-over ...
... movement had developed in Russia during the last decade of the nineteenth century. It was a response to the rapid growth of industry, cities, and the ...
... regime which subsequently arose, the Russian Revolution has been more than justified in the colossal development of industry... >>read more<... Workers. In his first address to the delegates, he advocated uncompromising opposition to the war and the Provisional Government and irreconcilable hostility ...
... of like-minded Russian revolutionaries to travel from Switzerland back to Russia through the enemy country of Germany. The man who returned to Russia ...